As in every Canary Island, Fuerteventura is an island with volcanic origin. It was the first current island to be formed, building itself basically during the Mioceno, between 22 and 10 million year before our Era. Therefore, it is an ancient island, already very disbanded by erosion and so having a gentle relief, although "rejuvenated" in part because of residual volcanic activity which has come almost to our time, affecting only to the north and center of Fuerteventura. There, the eruptions of the last 100.000 years have left wide fields of rough lava called “malpaíses”.  The highest elevation is the Pico de la Zarza with 807 m high, located in the peninsula of Jandía, in the south of the island, where sheerest relieves are found.

Rocks are mainly basalt, with dark color and forming characteristic vertical prisms while cooling. It also exist trachytes, with a lighter color, and other kinds of volcanic rocks. At Betancuria’s massif there are sedimentary rocks, alternating with submarine origin rocks in a wide area where the basement of the area surfaces, sometimes called the "basal complex", which corresponds to its growth phase.

The island’s coasts count with large beaches of soft sand, formed during million years in the sea by mollusk’s shells, sea urchins and other animals as well as calcareous algae.